This glossary should provide all important facts and related terms in a concentrated way. Link symbols point to: *= term within glossary *= page within this site *= other web site Top A *Aesthetic Movement Happened in the second half of 19th century (nobody is quite sure why) and lasted until WWI and maybe even longer. Activists of this movement were mostly artists or those who wished to be artists, spoke in a pompous manner and dressed themselves rather strangely. However, they prepared the society for 20th century phenomena like beatnics and hippies. *Art Nouveau Also known as Secessionism and *Jugendstil in German countries. A movement mostly associated to visual arts, most popular at the end of 19th century. In many ways it is associated with Aesthetic Movement (see above). *Arnold, Janet One of the most famous costumes’ historians and costume designers. I don’t intend to have too much information on her on my website, but you can check *http://www.thrednedlestrete.com/research/JanetArnold.htm for more information. Top B *Baroque A nice period in history spanning from 1600 up to 1750 (depending on a country and field of arts). Mid 17th century is in Britain called *Restoration, and 18th century is Rococo in France. The most significant detail in clothing of that period is that it had lots of details. Baroque showed abundance in visual and written arts and it also had impact on both male and female clothing. Abundant locks of hair were popular with both sexes, favourite details on clothes were masses of fine lace, bows, brocade textiles, gold and silverembroidery. *Biedermeier A term connected with German countries in 19th century. In the most specific meaning, Biedermeier lasts from about 1820 to 1840, although some people like spanning it all the way to the end of 19th century. In any case, Biedermeier is an epoch of a rising burgeoisie, of a higher middle class that threatened fading aristocracy by its growing wealth. It is important because middle-class people (and I mostly mean women) are then finally rich enough to afford themselves dresses suiting noblety and differences between those two classes – as far as outer look is concerned – are getting more and more vague. *Bonnet BonnetUsually a stiff hat with the cylinder on the back of the head and brim framing the face, worn by women in the first half of the 19th century. Also a name for any small stiff hat for women that doesn’t cover the whole head. *Boning Most common term for inlets in the corset that make it stiff. Those inlets can be made out of metal, wood, whalebone (therefore the name) or plastic. Material depends mostly on the period and shape of the corset. *Busk A piece of long triangular shaped wood that was insesrted in a socket in the middle front part of *corsets to keep the front as stiff as possible. *Bustle Rigidly reduced *hoops, meant only to support the behind of a skirt. Used between 1870 and 1890. Also known as cul de Paris or “Paris arse”. Top C *Chemise The essential undergarment for both sexes, today replaced by common underwear. The poor people maybe had but one set of decent clothes, but the poorest were those who didn’t have a single chemise. Men wore a shorter and women longer version of this plain white garment in a shape of a gown with or without sleeves, sometimes embroidered. The main purpose was to keep upper garments clean as long as possible since often washing would ruin them (especially corsets, embedded and *embroidered clothes). *Codpiece A small triangular-shaped piece of embroidered cloth worn by men over their, well, private parts in those times when they wore tights (15th to 16th century) and *doublets were too short to hide their pride (or shame). *Corset CorsetA device used by women for improving their figure, used more or less throughout the history of clothing. Corsets changed their shape radically during that time. Recent researches are still trying to prove that the original purpouse of corsets wasn’t to reduce the size of a waist, but to even the upper front part of the body and prevent clothes in abdominal area from folding. *Costuming is what this whole website is about. See everything. See also: *Reconstruction and *Costuming vs. Reconstruction *Cotehardie Sideless GownA “supertunic” or upper gown worn throughout the 14th century by both sexes. While the *kirtle, which was usually worn by women under the cotehardie, followed the body line down to the hips, cotehardie was mostly wide and flimsy, made of thick and expensive materials. It was usually made of brocade or embroidered and at one point so called heraldic cotehardie was popular, with the heraldic motives or coat of arms of the wearer ebroidered or sewn into it. Picture on the right side (Miniature by Jean Fouquet from Boccaccio Manuscript, 1458) shows a sideless gown – a form of cotehardie *Crinoline What everyone means when using this word is a certain shape of skirt or dress supported byhoops , or hoops themselves. However, crinoline was originally completely opposite. This was the name for a very thick and stiff petticoat made of horsehair (crin means “horsehair” in French), which was used from around 1830 to 1860 to give shape and volume to skirts. Since the skirts were getting more and more voluminous every year, hoops had to be re-envented in late 1850’s as an alternative to heavy and numerous petticoats. Top D *Doublet A short jacket (usually sleeveles) worn by men throughout 16th and 17th century. Top E *Empire In Britain also known as* Regency. *Embroidery Ornamentated needlework in fibre or metal threads. Top F *Farthingale see hoops. Flöge, Emilie (1874-1952) ,Klimt’s companion and the owner of a Viennesse fashion house that distributed eccentric clothes made after Klimt’s designs. *Fontange A headdress specific for the late 17th century. The hair was gathered in front into a nearly vertical “tower” and emphasized with fan-like lace inlets of the same name. Top G Top H *Hennin A cone-shaped high headdress worn by women in 15th century. What we usually imagine fairies and castle maidens to wear. Cone-shape was worn reduced to a cylinder in England. *Hoops Construction usually made as a petticoat with metal or wooden inlets for achieveng a desirable shape of skirt. In Elizabethan fashion the more common term for this is farthingale. *Houppelande Male HouppelandeFemale HouppelandeAn upper garment worn both by men and women in 15th century. It was a gown fitted at the shoulders and wide in the body, fastened by a belt at the waist (among men) or under the breasts (among women). Men’s houppelande was usually more elaborate than the women’s, having a high collar and imaginatively designed sleeves. Its legth depended on fashion and occasion. An example of male houppelande on left (fresco by Masolino, 1428) and female on right (detail of Van Eyck’s painting of Arnolfini’s Marriage) Top I Top J *James, Henry is actually not important for this website because he is a writer. Top K *Kirtle KirtleA simple dress used mostly in 14th and 15th century as an informal garment or undergown. Top L *Landsknecht Meaning, a farmer. A style very popular in early 16th century, deriving from and being most exploited in Germany. The most obvious characteristic of this style were *slashes in upper clothes through which edges of *chemise were pulled out. It is believed that this curious fashion had its roots in the clothes of Swiss soldiers who, after defeating the Duke of Burgundy in 1476, used the plundered expensive materials like silk and velvet for patching up their ragged clothes. Top M *Mantua A dress worn throughout the 18th century. It was supported with panniers and was wide on the hips but flat on the front and back. Also called manteau. *Muff A cylinder-shaped piece of thick textile or fur used to stick hands into to keep them warm. In some countries also a slang for outer female sexual organ.